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Propietati Zaharoza


CorinA

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Zaharoza sau zaharul este dizaharida cea mai raspandita in regnul vegetal:in fructe,in tulpini,in seminte,in radacini si tuberculi.Se gaseste libera in trestia de zahar,in morcovi,in sfecla de zahar,in pepeni,in foile si cocenii de porumb,in seva unor arbori,in nectarul unor flori.

Zaharoza se extrage la scara industriala din sucul trestiei de zahar al carui continut este de circa 18% sau din sfecla de zahar care contine 8-10% zahar.Zaharoza este o substanta solida,alba,cristalizata,solubila in apa,cu gust dulce.

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Zaharoza se topeste la 185°C cand formeaza un lichid galben-brun care prin racire da o masa amarfa dura si cu aspect sticlos,numita caramel.Daca incalzirea este avansata au loc procese de deshidratare interna si zaharoza se carbonizeaza.

Prin hidroliza acida sau enzimatica,zaharoza formeaza un amestec echimolecular de glucoza si fructoza,numit zahar invertit.

Zaharoza este folosita ca substanta de baza in alimentatie,avand un important aport energetic.Un gram de zahar elibereaza prin oxidare biochimica circa 4,2 kcal sau 17,55 kJ.

Zaharul se intrebuinteaza la indulcirea alimentelor si a bauturilor racoritoare,la fabricarea produselor zaharoase.

Stiati ca...

Denumirea de zaharuri sau de zaharide provine de la numele zaharului(sakkharon,in limba greaca),adus in Europa in anul 1492 si descoperit mai tarziu in 1747,in sfecla de zahar.

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